1. Séverine Sabia, research associate12,
  2. Aurore Fayosse, statistician1,
  3. Julien Dumurgier, associate professor3,
  4. Aline Dugravot, statistician1,
  5. Tasnime Akbaraly, research associate245,
  6. Annie Britton, professor2,
  7. Mika Kivimäki, professor2,
  8. Archana Singh-Manoux, research professor12



Objective To examine the association between alcohol consumption and risk of dementia.

Design Prospective cohort study.

Setting Civil service departments in London (Whitehall II study).

Participants 9087 participants aged 35-55 years at study inception (1985/88).

Main outcome measures Incident dementia, identified through linkage to hospital, mental health services, and mortality registers until 2017. Measures of alcohol consumption were the mean from three assessments between 1985/88 and 1991/93 (midlife), categorised as abstinence, 1-14 units/week, and >14 units/week; 17 year trajectories of alcohol consumption based on five assessments of alcohol consumption between 1985/88 and 2002/04; CAGE questionnaire for alcohol dependence assessed in 1991/93; and hospital admission for alcohol related chronic diseases between 1991 and 2017.

Results 397 cases of dementia were recorded over a mean follow-up of 23 years. Abstinence in midlife was associated with a higher risk of dementia (hazard ratio 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.15 to 1.89) compared with consumption of 1-14 units/week. Among those drinking >14 units/week, a 7 unit increase in alcohol consumption was associated with a 17% (95% confidence interval 4% to 32%) increase in risk of dementia. CAGE score >2 (hazard ratio 2.19, 1.29 to 3.71) and alcohol related hospital admission (4.28, 2.72 to 6.73) were also associated with an increased risk of dementia. Alcohol consumption trajectories from midlife to early old age showed long term abstinence (1.74, 1.31 to 2.30), decrease in consumption (1.55, 1.08 to 2.22), and long term consumption >14 units/week (1.40, 1.02 to 1.93) to be associated with a higher risk of dementia compared with long term consumption of 1-14 units/week. Analysis using multistate models suggested that the excess risk of dementia associated with abstinence in midlife was partly explained by cardiometabolic disease over the follow-up as the hazard ratio of dementia in abstainers without cardiometabolic disease was 1.33 (0.88 to 2.02) compared with 1.47 (1.15 to 1.89) in the entire population.

Conclusion The risk of dementia was increased in people who abstained from alcohol in midlife or consumed >14 units/week. In several countries, guidelines define thresholds for harmful alcohol consumption much higher than 14 units/week. The present findings encourage the downward revision of such guidelines to promote cognitive health at older ages.


Although it doesn’t clearly state the case, I suspect that abstinence in later years may be associated with abuse.  Alcoholics often come into recovery in their 4th-5th decade (some later, some sooner), but without separating out alcohol abusers it’s impossible to say if those “later abstainers” were not “heavy abusers” in earlier life.  I suspect that would be the case.

Dr. Raymond Oenbrink