Comment;  “Ablation of TGFB1 leads to weaning-age lethality due to autoimmune disease () or mid gestation lethality from defects in yolk sac vasculogenesis and hematopoiesis ().” Thus, it appears that TGFB1 is involved in the immune system function from the earliest stages.  How much does this influence neuro-ectodermal development as well in mothers exposed to mycotoxins while pregnant?  So much to learn!



Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGFβ) signaling regulates a myriad of biological processes during embryogenesis, in the adult, and during the manifestation of disease. TGFβ signaling is propagated through one of three TGFβ ligands interacting with Type I and Type II receptors, and Type III co-receptors. Although TGFβ signaling is regulated partly by the combinatorial expression patterns of TGFβ receptors and ligands, a comprehensive gene expression analysis has not been published.


Here we report the embryonic mRNA expression patterns in chicken embryos of the canonical TGFβ ligands (TGFB1, TGFB2, and TGFB3) and receptors (TGFBR1TGFBR2TGFBR3), plus the Activin A receptor, type 1 (ACVR1) and co receptor Endoglin (ENG) that also transduce TGFβ signaling.


TGFB ligands and receptors show dynamic and frequently overlapping expression patterns in numerous embryonic cell layers and structures. Integrating expression information identifies combinations of ligands and receptors that are involved in specific developmental processes including somitogenesis, cardiogenesis and vasculogenesis.

Dr. Raymond Oenbrink