Shiho Aoki a, Atsushi Iwai a, b*, Koji Kawata a, b, Daisuke Muramatsu a, Hirofumi
Uchiyama b, Mitsuyasu Okabe b, Masahiro Ikesue c, Naoyoshi Maeda c, and
Toshimitsu Uede c, d.


The Aureobasidium pullulans-produced β-glucan (AP-PG) is an immune stimulator, and believed to exhibit beneficial effects on health through its immune stimulating activity. Here, the effect of oral administration of AP-PG on high-fat diet
(HFD)-induced atherosclerosis was evaluated using apolipoprotein E deficient mice, a widely used mouse model for atherosclerosis. The results demonstrated that HFD-induced development of atherosclerosis was significantly reduced in the AP-PG-treated mice when compared with that of the control mice. In serological analysis, blood levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, a well-known risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis, were significantly reduced in the AP-PG-treated group of mice. Further, immunohistochemical analysis using MOMA-2 antibody showed that oral administration of AP-PG is effective in ameliorating vascular accumulation of macrophages. These data suggest the possibility that oral administration of AP-PG is effective in ameliorating HFD-induced development of atherosclerosis.


β-glucan types[edit]

The shiitake mushroom contains beta-glucans.

β-glucans form a natural component of the cell walls of bacteria, fungi, yeast, and cereals such as oat and barley. Each type of beta-glucan comprises a different molecular backbone, level of branching, and molecular weight which affects its solubility and physiological impact. One of the most common sources of β(1,3)D-glucan for supplement use is derived from the cell wall of baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The β(1,3)D-glucans from yeast are often insoluble. However, β(1,3)(1,4)-glucans are also extracted from the bran of some grains, such as oats and barley, and to a much lesser degree in rye and wheat. Other sources include some types of seaweed,[9] and various species of mushrooms, such as reishiGanoderma applanatum,[10] shiitake, Chaga and maitake.[11]

(1,3)-β-D-glucan medical application[edit]

An assay to detect the presence of (1,3)-β-D-glucan in blood is marketed as a means of identifying invasive or disseminated fungal infections.[22][23][24] This test should be interpreted within the broader clinical context, however, as a positive test does not render a diagnosis, and a negative test does not rule out infection. False positives may occur because of fungal contaminants in the antibiotics ,[25] and piperacillin/tazobactam. False positives can also occur with contamination of clinical specimens with the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniaePseudomonas aeruginosa, and Alcaligenes faecalis, which also produce (1→3)β-D-glucan.[26] This test can aid in the detection of Aspergillus, Candida, and Pneumocystis jirovecii.[27][28][29] This test cannot be used to detect Mucor or Rhizopus, the fungi responsible for mucormycosis, as they do not produce (1,3)-beta-D-glucan.[30]

Let your food be your medicine.  It’s interesting that some of the fungus-produced elements are also toxins that can cause illness such as CIRS.  Yet a different category of beta-glucan can have very positive health benefits.



Dr. Raymond Oenbrink
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