Stored in massive amounts as bone—bone is essentially the “calcium bank”


Regulates the heart

  • Essential for depolarization/repolarization of cell membranes for nerve conduction & muscle contraction.
  • Required for intra-cellular signaling
  • Most abundant mineral in the body
  • Absorption decreases with aging
  • Best absorbed in an acidic environment
  • Adequate absorption depends on Parathyroid Hormone & Vitamins A, C & D
  • High levels of fat, protein or sugar impair absorption
  • Helps relieve insomnia—calming effect

Deficiency Syndromes

  • Brittle nails, bone malformation, osteoporosis.
  • Counteracts sodium in the development of hypertension.
  • Severe deficiency linked with dementia, seizures, impaired clotting, abnormal heartbeat.
  • Toxicity symptoms
  • Lethargy
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea/vomiting/constipation
  • Excessive thirst & urination
  • Weakness
  • Calcification of soft tissues